With the entry into force of TPP-11 and the EU-Japan Free Trade Agreement in late 2018 and early 2019, exports from EU Member States and TPP-11 have become more competitive for Japanese importers. U.S. agricultural exports to Japan decreased by 7% ($8.3 billion) between January and August 2019 compared to the same period in 2018 ($8.3 billion).19 According to Japanese customs data, declines in specific products in the first nine months of 2019 compared to the same period in 2018 (-13%), Pork (-7%) and beef (-4%)20 Over the same period, Japanese imports of these raw materials from several EU countries and the TPP-11 countries have increased.21 Given that, initially, the agreement between the United States and Japan leads to a short-term reduction in tariffs on most American agricultural products, it could improve prospects for U.S. agricultural exporters. Testimony of Josh Nassar, House Ways and Means Souscommittee on Trade, U.S.-Japan Trade Agreements Hearing, 116th Cong., 2nd sess., November 20, 2019, at waysandmeans.house.gov/legislation/hearings/us-japan-trade-agreements. In May 2019, one year after the start of an investigation by the U.S. Department of Commerce pursuant to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C.1862), President Trump declared that imports of motor vehicles and spare parts, including from Japan and the EU, were a threat to U.S. national security.25 On which the military superiority of the United States depends. Pursuant to the findings of Section 232, the President is authorized to impose import restrictions, including customs duties. Toyota and other Japanese automakers have posed a particular problem with the president`s focus on the United States. M. The President asked the U.S.
Trade Representative (USTR) to: 27 Immediately after the signing of the USJTA, USTR Lighthizer stated that, "in light of the new trade agreement," the government has no intention, "at this stage," to impose additional restrictions on imports of U.S. cars under Section 232.28 Japan remains subject to Section 232 tariffs. U.S. steel and aluminum imports introduced by the government in March 2018. The USJTA is expected to reduce or eliminate tariffs on agriculture and certain industrial products and cover about $14.4 billion (US$7.2 billion in imports and exports) or 5% of bilateral trade. . . .